Brazilian aviation expert Anesia Pinheiro Machado photographed with Pan American Airways senior instructor Donald Dionne, 1940.
Anesia was the second woman to earn a Brazilian pilot’s license and the first woman to earn a US commercial pilot’s license with additional ratings as an instructor and for flying on instruments only.
In September 1922, Anesia flew across Brazil to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Brazil’s independence from Portugal. This four day flight made her the first woman to fly across Brazil. When she landed in Rio, Brazilian aviation pioneer Santos Dumont gave Anesia a replica of the medal he received from Isabel de Bragança. That medal became Anesia’s good luck charm and she was never without it.
In 1951, Anesia toured the Americas, greeting world leaders from North, Central, and South America. She considered this the most satisfying experience of her life.
Brazil’s first female pilot to transport passengers, Anesia had a long career as both a commercial pilot and an instructor for the Brazilian Air Force.
On this day in history September 7, 1822: On the banks of the Ipiranga River in São Paulo, Crown Prince Regent Pedro declared Brazil’s independence from Portugal.
The article Brazil’s Independence Day - September 7: Independência ou Morte by Bonnie Hamre from the Go SouthAmerica About webpage briefly describes some of the events that led to Brazil’s Declaration of Independence by Prince Regent Pedro:
With Napoleon and the Peninsular Wars, and the invasion and occupation of Spain and Portugal, Dom João VI, the seventeenth king of Portugal, fled Lisbon and established his court in Rio de Janeiro, where for the next 13 years, he ruled Portugals Asian, African, and American colonies. Although Dom João VI (1769-1826) never ruled over an independent Brazil, historians call him the “Founder of the Brazilian Nationality.” One of his major contributions to the growth of Brazil was opening the colony’s ports to free trade with friendly nations, thus signaling a marked change in trade and the resulting improved consequence of Brazil. Additionally, Dom João VI spearheaded the founding of the Academia Naval (Naval Academy), Hospital Militar (Military Hospital), Arquivo Militar (Military Archives), Jardim Botânico (Botanic Garden), Intendência Geral de Polícia (Police Commissariat), Real Biblioteca (Royal Library), the Banco do Brasil (Bank of Brazil), and the gunpowder factory. With the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, he thought it safe to make Brazil another kingdom equal to Portugal. He also decided to remain in Brazil.
The Portuguese government disagreed with both decisions and in 1820 sent troops to assist his relocation to Portugal where the army headed a revolution designed to bring about a constitutional government with Dom João as the constitutional monarch. Dom João returned to Portugal, leaving his 23-year-old son Pedro as prince regent of Brazil. Pedro actively engaged in enlisting support from both able advisors and the people of Brazil.
With revolutions and the desire for independence active in other Latin American countries, Pedro realized Brazil would soon wish for the same. With the support of the Brazilian people and the Brazilian Senate who had bestowed on him the title of Defensor e Protetor Perpétuo do Brasil, Protector and Perpetual Defender of Brazil, he defied an order to return to Portugal. When the Portuguese parliament wished to return Brazil to colonial status, Pedro seized the moment. On September 7, 1822, after receiving orders from the Portuguese parliament limiting his powers in Brazil, Pedro declared Brazils independence near the Ipiranga River in São Paulo. Tearing the Portuguese blue and white insignia from his uniform, Pedro drew his sword, and swore: “By my blood, by my honor, and by God: I will make Brazil free.” Their motto, he said, would be Independência ou Morte, Independence or Death! This statement is known as the Grito do Ipiranga.
Pedro de Alcântara Francisco Antônio João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim de Bragança e Bourbom, became Dom Pedro I, the first emperor of Brazil and ruled for nine years.
Brazil’s independence was officially Britain and Portugal via the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro on August 29, 1825.
For Further Reading:
- The Treaty of Rio de Janeiro of 1825 from British and Foreign State Papers 1824-1825
- Why Was Brazil Different? The Contexts of Independence by Kenneth R. Maxwell, Nelson and David Rockefeller Senior Fellow, Council on Foreign Relations from the Council on Foreign Relations dated April 25, 2000
- The Invention of Sete de Setembro, 1822-1831 by Hendrik Kraay from the University of São Paulo website
- Brazil in the South Atlantic: 1550-1850 by Luiz Felipe de Alencastro Translated by Emilio Sauri from Annales HSS 61.2 (March-April 2006) 339-382
- Crown, Empire, and Nation (1807–1834) by Miriam Halpern Pereira from e-JPH, Vol. 11, number 1, Summer 2013
history meme | three inventions ∙ alberto santos dumont’s 14-bis
In October 23, 1906 the Brazilian Alberto Santos Dumont made the first mechanical flight on a heavier-than-air machine: at 4 p.m. his airplane, the “14-bis”, rose from the ground and traveled the distance of 60 meters at a height of 2 to 3 meters: a small flight for a man but a great flight for humanity!
On November 12, he set the first aviation record in the world, flying 220 meters in 21 ½ seconds with members of the Aero-Club du France in attendance. This won Santos Dumont a prize of 1500 francs for making the first flight over 100 meters. The flight was observed by officials from what would become the Federation Aeronautique Internationale (the designated keeper of aviation records), and was credited the first mechanical flight in the world.
When Santos Dumont decided to attack the problem of the mechanical flight, this conception was considered utopian by his contemporaries, and remained so until 1905. After Dumont’s flight, nobody doubted more of the possibility of the mechanical flight. French Captain Ferber in his book “Aviation” written in 1907, says: “The Brazilian inventor has proved that flying machines can fly,” which is equivalent to saying that until then nobody else had. [x]
Roosvelt and Getúlio Vargas
Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932 (Revolução Constitucionalista de 1932)
Taxi driver and police officer at Sao Joao Avenue.
Sao Paulo - Brazil
Student movement against the military government (1960’s)
[Arquivo Público do Estado de São Paulo]